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What is Qiyas (Analogy) in Islam – Islamic Education


Qiyas definition in Islam

Qiyas is the fourth and most dependent source of Islamic Law. Literally, Qiyas means measuring or comparing with or judging by comparing. In Islamic Jurisprudence (Shariah), Qiyas is a process of deduction by which the law of text (Nas) is applied to cases which have not been clearly covered by the other sources of Islamic Law.

Thus, it is extended to cases or matters not explicitly covered by the Quran and the Sunnah on the grounds of a material similarity in the nature of the two cases. The material similarity is termed as 'Illa or effective cause. So, by taking the 'Illa of the Quran, or the Sunnah as absolute, subject practitioners identify the existence of the same 'Illa in the new case, and then decide similarly.

In the Quran, we find a number of verses where Allah Almighty has enjoined us to use our brains and reasoning.

For instance, in 59:2 the Quran asks us to utilize our insight in order to learn lessons:

Then take admonition O you with insight.

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