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Why Hazrat Uthman faced difficulties in the last years of his caliphate?

During the last years of his caliphate, Caliph Uthman (رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ)faced serious difficulties that eventually led to his martyrdom in 35 AH (656 AD). There were a number of reasons behind it. A strong and highly organized gang of insurgents had started its nefarious plans to create differences among the Muslims.

Uthman's own mild and lenient temperament was exploited by these insurgents who unleashed a campaign of poisonous propaganda against the Caliph in a very cunning manner. They were led by the ring leader Abdullah bin Saba and hence became known as the Sabates.

Abdullah bin Saba was a Jewish hypocrite and was assisted by such prominent figures as Malik al-Ashtar. The rebellion gained such momentum that many prominent personalities such as Ammar bin Yasir (رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ) and Muhammad bin Abu Bakr (رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ) were innocently swept along with it.

Abdullah bin Saba and his hypocritical followers established their headquarters in Egypt and began to circulate forged letters that contained complaints against the Caliph, his governors, and other state officials. Efforts were made to highlight the long-forgotten rivalry between Banu Hashim and Banu Umayya. Highly publicized false allegations were made against the Caliph himself.

Through forged letters, it was shown that prominent companions like Ali, Talha, and Zubayr(رضی اللہ تعالیٰ عنہ) also shared their views. Even some of the noblest steps of the Caliph were misprojected before the public; for example, the standardization of the Quran and expansion of the compound of the Ka'ba.

These anti-Islam elements went to the extent of twisting the meaning of the Quranic verses. The pious Caliph did not immediately lash out against these conspirators as it was his desire to avoid bloodshed in the sacred city of Madina. Finally, the State Treasury (Bait al-Maal) began to overflow with riches and this further fueled the greed of the rebels. Now keeping in mind the vast Muslim empire and its associated complexities it was simply not possible to curb these elements.

The conspirators exploited this situation and spread false propaganda about the differences between the Caliph and other sincere companions. As a result of all this, the conspirators paved the way for the brutal murder of the 3rd Caliph of Islam.


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